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Full text of "Byzantine Churches In Constantinople"

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CHAPTER  I
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE
I. PLANNING
AT the beginning of the fifth century, which is a suitable point from which to date the rise of Byzantine architecture, three principal types of church plan prevailed in the Roman world :
I.  The Basilica : an oblong hall divided into nave and aisles, and roofed in wood, as in the Italian and Salonican examples, or with stone barrel-vaults, as in Asia Minor and Central Syria.
II.  The Octagonal or Circular plan covered with a stone or brick dome, a type which may be subdivided according as (i) the dome rests upon the outer walls of the building, or (2) on columns or piers surrounded by an ambulatory.
The Pantheon and the so-called Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome are early examples of the first variety, the first circular, the second a decagon in plan. S. George at Salonica is a later circular example. An early instance of the second variety is found in S. Constanza at Rome, and a considerable number of similar churches occur in Asia Minor, dating from the time of Constantine the Great or a little later.
III.  The Cross plan.    Here we have a square central area covered by a dome, from which extend Four vaulted arms constituting  a cross.     This type also assumes two distinct forms :